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The green coffee beans have to be roasted to develop aroma, flavour and body. The roasting process causes chemical changings in the coffee. Soluble oils are developed, caramel is formed, the taste and aroma develops and the colour changes from light to deep brown shades. The roasting procedure can take up to 17 minutes for the dark espresso roasts.

What exactly happens during the roasting: After about 5 minutes in the roaster, the green beans start to swell and change their colour to yellow and then gold. After 9 minutes, the beans are even darker and start looking wrinkly. Around 10 minutes the beans crack. Gases inside them built up, swell them about double their original size and crack open. This can be recognized and heard as a sound quite similar to the one of popcorn. Now after 11 minutes, the colour changes to a darker brown and can now be already taken out of the roaster, if a lighter roast is required. After 12 minutes the colour and aroma begin to intensify and a second pop can be noticed. At 15-17 minutes of roasting, the beans look very dark and are named French, Italian or Espresso roast. As these roasts are the darkest, the beans have to be taken out of the roaster now, to avoid burning.



However, it is also possible to roast all the beans for the same time period, but the temperature changes according to the requirements for a certain roasting degree . Due to the roasting, the bean looses about 12 – 20% of it’s weight, but it’s size increases about 50 – 100%. The beans will be at their optimal flavour after one or two days, during them they release vapor.

Light and medium roasts, which are milder in taste and preserve the acidity and allow their beans to keep their delicate flavours and aromas, are especially recommended for breakfast coffees and with milk. A darker roast is more recommendable for after dinner and is best drunk black. An Italian or French roast has almost lost all its acidity and its distinctive flavours, but the strong, bitter taste can be a real treat.


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